Lapidus – This is very good for people that have a mobile metatarsal. By removing the bone in a wedge shape from either side of the joint at the base of the metatarsal, this allows the surgeon to correct the position of the metatarsal while fusing the joint, making it more stable. Recovery is similar to that of the base wedge. Keller arthoplasty – this involves removing the bone at the base of the big toe and essentially removing half of the big toe joint. However, this can leave the big toe a little bit unstable and is mainly used for older people with arthritis. Hallux valgus is the medical term for a bunion, which is a condition that causes the big toe to turn inward toward the pinky toe. Once the condition progresses, a bump (bunion) develops on the metatarsal bone, or inside of the foot around the big tone joint. The main cause of hallux valgus is shoes that do not fit correctly. According to the National Library of Medicine, 48 percent of the population suffers from the condition. The only corrective treatment for bunions is surgery and if your pain is severe and foot wear impossible your doctor may refer you to the hospital. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recently published information about a new, minimally invasive surgical procedure that can be used to treat bunions. However, as the procedure is new, there is currently little reliable evidence of how effective or safe it is. Whichever type of surgery you have, you will be under a local anaesthetic or general anaesthetic. One or more incisions will be made near the big toe so that bone-cutting instruments can be inserted. These are used to remove the bunion and to divide one or more bones located at the front of the foot. Bunions are one of the most familiar foot problems. Bunions are often reported as a bump on the side of the big toe. Bunions most usually affect women. Bunions happen nearly 10 times more often in women then men. The large toe may turn in toward the second toe (angulation), and the tissues surrounding the joint may be swollen and fragile. Bunions cause from inflammation and thickening of the bursa (fluid-filled sac in the connective tissue) and abnormal bone composition and misalignment of the toe. Bunions may be caused by taut, pointy-toed, or high-heeled shoes, and shoes that are too small. Professional podiatrist ( foot and ankle doctor ) usually prescribes physical therapy and custom orthotics. Properly fitted shoes are also an effective treatment for the problem. For mild to moderate hammer toe cases, these treatment measures may completely reduce or remove any kind of related symptoms. In severe cases podiatric surgery may prove necessary in order to solve the problem completely. However, it is the final solution to the problem and foot and ankle doctors recommend after thorough inspection and diagnosis. American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, 515 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, Illinois 60068. This organization's website provides information about foot health, foot and ankle deformities, and foot injuries. Active lifestyles expose the feet to many strains or over-use injuries, particularly when an exercise program is started without adequate preparation. Improper foot gear is one of the leading causes of foot injuries and pain. A good pair of shoes that are worn out are just as likely to allow or cause a foot injury as is a cheap, poorly constructed shoe. Blisters, either occasional or chronic, in the same area may be indicative of stress points, poor shoe fit, or an undetected problem that is starting to worsen. If you follow these simple at-home foot remedies, you will soon be able to take your feet in public once again. Spurs are calcium growths that develop on bones of your feet. They are caused by muscle strain in the feet. Standing for long periods of time, wearing badly fitting shoes, or being overweight can make spurs worse. Sometimes spurs are completely painless - at other times they can be very painful. Treatments for spurs include using foot supports, heel pads, and heel cups. Sometimes surgery is needed. If you have to remove your shoes (i.e. religious places) it is best to visit early morning or late in the evening. When the ground is hot it can blister your feet.